Developing Inspection System (noob)

I have a technical background but nothing based on cameras and sensors. I want to develop a camera inspection system for my hobby reloading ammunition. I can produce one per second and rather than load them into a gauge block that checks overall length and other measurements, I would like to use a camera to inspect them as they are produced and kick out the ones that require further inspection.

Where is a good place to start and what types of hardware would be needed?